The traditional approach to project planning is typified by the road map: a document that lists various initiatives that the organization intends to accomplish over a set period. In incumbent organizations, these often fit into the annual budgeting process and are used to help forecast costs and resourcing needs.

The production of these roadmaps is often a considerable undertaking. They involve a great deal of research and planning, and often require a significant amount of political capital to earn buy-in from all of the interested parties. There's a lot at stake in the roadmap document itself.

Because of this, organizations may be biased to seek out information that confirms the decisions and choices that informed the roadmap, and reluctant to change direction when conditions change or new information comes to light that calls the earlier decisions into question.